This classification underlies sophisticated interactions and networking within these subgroups of MSM. Homosexual practices, relationships, and identities vary in different cultural settings, which are important to HIV transmission and prevention.
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For example, if I don't have a bike, they buy a bike for me. Others started by working in entertainment venues e. They hide their sexual preference from their family, focus group, younger youths, Ho Chi Minh City. MSM who identify themselves as members of a gay community are more likely to approach HIV prevention activities that are deed for gay men. Many people are married and have children but still search for a strange taste sex with men.
All interviews and discussions were tape recorded and then transcribed. Most street-based youth and many other young men also exchanged sex for nonmonetary gifts. Quotes supporting key research findings were excerpted from the transcripts and translated into English when the analysis was completed. We then discuss the implications of these sexual arrangements and identities for HIV prevention.
The terms used to classify homosexual men or other MSM were often expressed using local slang Table 2. A normal man does not do it like that. Street-based youth who sell sex said that they solicited sexual partners primarily through direct contact. The term supersim was used to label men who like having sex with both men and women. If the man agreed, they then arranged to go to a secluded place, to a hotel, or to the home of the client to have sex. This study was approved by the appropriate Vietnamese review committee. We have to do massage for men, then they want us, asking for sex and paying more.
Most participants realized, however, that such committed relationships were unlikely given the current social conditions. Rapid socioeconomic transformation in last 15 years has led to greater freedom of sexual expression among young people, and advances in communication technologies have enabled homosexuals in Vietnam to interact with and learn about their counterparts in other countries. Also, we wanted a sample of street-based youth because they are known to be at greater risk for HIV. In-depth interviews were semistructured, focusing on three : a identities, b relationships and perceptions of gender roles, and c sexual practices and condom use.
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Ho Chi Minh City. Each term was often attached to a specific subgroup. Rooted in the social and cultural denial of homosexuality in Vietnam, most of the terms were derogatory, insulting, or abusive. Similar to Ho Chi Minh City, there are well-known places for MSM to gather such as bars, parks, and streets, but they are fewer in .
Sexual identity and the meanings attached to sexual practices, are, like other areas of human life, profoundly influenced by culture and social structure. Researchers also compared s between the two cities, different ages, and subgroups of young men. All were single. Participants reported the most common way to classify youth who self-identify as homosexual was based on their physical appearances and mannerisms. Data Naked vietnamese boys the linguistic classification, sexual relationships and behaviors, identity and process of homosexual identification, and the potential linkage between sexual identity and sexual behaviors of MSM in Vietnam.
They are also built on life histories such as ificant life events, contexts, and relationships Herdt, ; Stoller, Social contexts in which sexual acts take place also have an important impact on the types and nature of sexual practices. In Hanoi, street-based youth often solicited clients in a particular territory over which they claimed exclusive rights; men from outside the group could be attacked if they approached men these deated areas.
Questions asked elicit information on young men's experiences, knowledge, beliefs concerning sexual identities, sexual practices as well as their social interactions and personal relationships within and beyond the MSM community. Commercial sexual relations were common, with approximately two thirds of participants, particularly street-based youth, involved in selling sex.
If I want, I play the wife role and he is my husband. Each focus group discussion was attended by six to eight young people of the same age group 15—18 [younger youths] or 19—24 years old [older youths] and recruited from the same setting street-based or nonstreet-based youth.
As a result, they often attempt to keep their sexual identities and desires secret. They also noted that sexual relationships between young men could be committed, casual, or commercial. They were often street-based youth, unemployed youth, or college students.
They like private places because they are afraid of being revealed to their family about their real sexual orientation. If I ask for a cell phone, they offer me a cell phone, and if I need money, they give me money, focus group, street-based youth, Ho Chi Minh City. Our study explores emergent identities andrelationships and perceptions of gender roles, and sexual practices among this population group. This study used qualitative methods, collecting data through in-depth interviews and focus groups. For many, however, it was difficult to draw the line between sex performed for pleasure and sex performed for money.
Many rich gay men can give me whatever I need if I agree to be their lover and satisfy them.
We are young rural boys coming to the city to earn a living. Our analyses were based on 26 in-depth interviews and 10 focus group discussions with young MSM recruited through public place intercepts and cruising areas. Salient themes were determined by consensus among three Vietnamese investigators A. P, and T. T who then produced the narrative findings in English.
Young men there reported a greater of clients than in Hanoi. Sexual relationships among men were guided by their notions of gender. In Ho Chi Minh City, there was no defined territory; participants said that anyone could look for potential clients in any public space. Participants noted other situations and behaviors of some MSM. They often do weight-lifting so they look very strong.
They are afraid of being laughed at or discriminated against.
For example, older partners offered food, shelter, and other goods that these young men needed:. The median age of participants was 17 years. There has been an increase in the visibility of homosexual men in major cities of Vietnam who were largely an unknown population until the emergence of the HIV epidemic. This qualitative study examines local identities, relationships, and sexual practices among young MSM aged 15—24 in the cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Generally, in Vietnam MSM are classified based on appearances, mannerisms and perceived levels of masculinity or femininity.
Transcripts and field notes were analyzed using N. ViVo, Version 2. Data also highlight the stages of homosexual community development in urban Vietnam and important differences between Vietnam and the West in the representation of homosexual Naked vietnamese boys, relationships, and practices. Rapid socioeconomic transformation in Vietnam in last 15 years has been followed by more liberation of sexual expression and representation of sexual identity among young people. As in many other cultures, homosexuality is not considered a normal or acceptable practice in Vietnam.
Focus group discussions explored ways to ensure that the program activities reach and serve young MSM, and take into the local sociopolitical context.
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For example, discrimination against homosexuals often causes sex to be performed unexpectedly and quickly in the dark with ificant stress and fear of being discovered by an outsider. College students and young, unemployed men also sold sex. Data collectors approached potential participants with assistance of the peer-education clubs in the two cities.
Some reported receiving extended financial support from older men who wanted to establish long-term relationships. Using the snowball technique, 26 young men were recruited for in-depth interviews and 66 young men for 10 focus group discussions. There are a of establishments that cater to MSM such as coffee houses, bars, restaurants, massage parlors, saunas, and health clubs.
Most participants reported being versatile, alternating between inserter and receiver roles depending on settings or partner; some described how they would also shift roles during one sexual session. The mechanisms underlying these sexual orientations and representations vary in even more detailed forms.
Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam with a population of 3. They often began this vocation after meeting a man who offered them money, meal, or a drink in exchange for sex. Ho Chi Minh City is the largest city and commercial center in Vietnam with a population of 6 million; the MSM population is estimated to be about 40, Nguyen et al. This term was later expanded to imply transgenders and gay men.
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The sample comprised 92 young men in the two cities Table 1. These cities were chosen because they have the largest MSM communities. Or you are on top of me, okay? Or, I am on top of you, okay? Six of the in-depth interviews and five of the focus group discussions were conducted with MSM who lived and worked on the streets, often called street based.
Sometimes, similar roles were established in commercial encounters. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted in places where the youth felt comfortable to talk about personal issues e. When I go with another, if he is more feminine than I am, he Naked vietnamese boys be the wife and I will be the husband. To provide further insight into male homosexuality in a developing country's contexts, this paper presents findings from a qualitative study conducted in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam with young men aged 15—24 who said they had sexual intercourse with other men.
One of the coauthors T. T conducted coding for main themes and issues and developed patterns and models within the narrative data for initial interpretations and explanations. Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. The findings presented in this article were part of a larger study to gather information from young men for an HIV prevention program in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Data collectors consisted of two investigators who were public health professionals and two sociologists. Young, poor migrants from rural areas became involved in commercial sex for survival. Although the term MSM is often used interchangeably with that of gay menfor this study MSM included males who identified as either homosexual or heterosexual.
Under these circumstances, it is hard for us to resist.