Yet there are comparatively few content analyses for nudity, especially when it comes to television. Lean Library can solve it. Although single-country studies are valuable, they usually analyze a specific sample at a specific time of the year in a descriptive manner. Sexuality and old age are understood as incompatible, and popular culture even emphasizes that older people are not sexually desirable Vares, This is in line with research showing that older people are regarded as less attractive than younger people, which is valid for both genders, but even more pronounced for women Deutsch et al.
However, knowledge on the influence of culture on nudity in advertising is scarce. In addition, strong self-regulation might also prevent government regulation.
These countries were selected based on their masculinity scores. For example, nudity did not work well in China Cheung et al. Regulations can be generally divided into two groups: One is self-regulation, and the other is government regulation.
Numerous studies have looked at the effects of nudity on the attitudes of consumers toward the ad, brand recall, and purchase intention. In fact, it is not the same to interpret differences between two countries by simply referring to cultural differences as it is to empirically measure and analyze the role of culture in a statistical model Matthes et al. Self-regulation is generally supported by the advertising industry because it monitors messages and increases the reputation of the industry. While this study is pioneering, the data sets are from Also, the study sampled its material from different months, which may reduce the validity of the conclusions.
If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. Also, private channels are comparable on economic grounds. Because public service broadcasters might be more affected by country-specific regulations, we focused on private television.
Regulations are highly Only one naked male by country and are based on what is appropriate in a specific culture. We thus follow the footsteps of Nelson and Paek using the same underlying conceptual framework but test the roles of two cultural models as well as preclearance policies. It reflects the beliefs of a society about whether biological sex should determine roles in that society.
Thus, it is essential to use additional indices. research suggests that culturally normative advertising content, such as the depiction of gender, is culture driven. Such cultural differences have certainly also an influence on advertising regulation. It follows that H2: Advertisements for congruent products show higher degrees of nudity compared with incongruent ones. In addition, countries with strong censorship rules had a slightly higher mean score of male but not female nudity than those with less strict censorship guidelines.
In fact, persuasion theory suggests that match-up fosters attitude change and le to positive ad evaluations. consistently showed that women are more likely to be suggestively dressed or partially dressed, whereas men are more likely to be fully dressed. Following HofstedeNelson and Paek examined the advertisements in Cosmopolitan magazine from seven countries and found that masculinity and a restrictive political system were negatively related and that sexual freedom was positively related to degrees of nudity. Hardly any studies on TV advertising have examined the relationship between age and the degree of nudity.
Young adults were more suggestively dressed, whereas older adults were more conservatively and more fully dressed. The Only one naked male gender egalitarian societies rely less on biological sex and thus have less gender differentiation Emrich et al.
For congruent products, nudity has a perceived relevance, such as for underwear or fashion products and cosmetics, but it is also considered relevant to products that are associated with sexuality, such as alcohol. While full nudity itself was rarely found in these studies, a clear gender difference emerged in the degree of dress of the primary characters. Because of the perceived relevance of nudity for congruent products, the audience might be more accepting of nudity in such contexts than for, for example, car advertisements.
Overall, however, such stereotypes seem to be decreasing Wolin, The cause and theoretical explanation for this finding is that the female body appears to be more sexually objectified than the male body.
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Also, advertising can be understood as a system of symbolic power relations between men and women see Barthel, Based on this theoretical reasoning and on prior research, we hypothesize the following: H1: The degree of nudity is higher for female characters compared with male characters. Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Within these dimensions, the masculinity dimension is the most relevant for the purposes of this article.
H3: Younger characters show higher degrees of nudity compared with older ones. As a consequence, we cannot compare the findings across countries Matthes et al. We aimed for a broad range of countries with different scores on various gender indices.
Among them, nudity—or, the degree of dress—of the primary characters is the characteristic most likely to give a sexual connotation to an advertisement. Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. Against this background, this article attempts to address four major research gaps: First, while some studies on gender representation in television advertising have looked at nudity as a by-product e. These refer to different and unrelated strands of research, so we will present them separately in the next sections.
Several content analytical studies in the United States have investigated nudity as a main variable in advertising e. Based on the literature suggesting that older people are not associated with sexuality, we formulate the following hypothesis.
In addition, feminine societies are more gender equal Only one naked male might translate to audience preferences and also that women might play a bigger role in the creation of advertisements. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. We recorded 15 hr of primetime TV p. French and Israeli advertisements, for instance, make more use of sex appeal than in the United States Hetsroni, Both studies are built on the theoretical notion that cultural dimensions Hofstede, ; House et al.
Against this background, we now explain several cultural models and gender indices and, after that, preclearance policies. This product could help you. Second, we lack theory-driven, comparative research. One weakness of most self-regulation systems is that the regulatory bodies only learn of the problematic ad through complaints after the ad has already been run Sheehan, Thus, some countries also employ advertising preclearance, which is a compulsory examination of an advertisement for its compliance with regulatory rules before it can be broadcast.
research has found key variables predicting nudity, such as the gender of the primary character, the characteristics of the product i. Did you struggle to get access to this article? Duplicate ; political ; for films and CDs; public service announcements PSAs ; and with kids, animals, or comic figures as dominant actors were not included in the study. There is a lack of comparative research on nudity in television advertising.
The dominance of female over male nudity in TV should thus decrease in gender egalitarian societies.
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In the context of television advertisements, Nelson and Paek found that the product category was the most ificant predictor for the degree of nudity. The underlying theory is that cultural models translate to preferences of the audience and thus, in turn, affects creative decisions by advertisers.
The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. However, we did utilize CCTV-1 as it was the clearly dominating channel for China and also included the largest public service channel in Austria due to a very low audience share of private channels. If, for instance, nudity is culturally accepted in a country, advertisers should be more likely to use nudity for a product compared with a country where nudity is less established.
Such differences should directly translate to our study in that men and women are represented in more different ways in masculine than in feminine societies Huang, ; Wiles et al. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Other products, such as banking or computers, are incongruent and therefore rarely associated with nudity.
This might have an effect on audience expectations as well as on the ratio of male and female advertising creatives and therefore also on gender representations.
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Stern and Mastro have shown that age differences played a ificant role in how characters were dressed. The masculinity dimension reflects differences among societies in how far each emphasize masculine values such as assertiveness and competition versus feminine values such as nurturance or solidarity Hofstede, In addition to that, another aspect of the masculinity dimension reflects differences among societies in their beliefs about appropriate behavior for males and females with more masculine cultures having more emphasis on males being more assertive and tough and females expected to be modest, whereas in feminine cultures, there are less gender differences and males as well as females are expected to be modest Emrich et al.
An, Based on literature, we posit the following hypothesis: H6: Preclearance predicts the ratio between female and male nudity in that preclearance reduces the dominance of female nudity. This finding is in accordance with the so-called double standard of aging Sontag,that is, the idea that society is much more permissive of aging in men than in women.